The Future of Educational Technology


Here at the end of the semester we’ve been reading about and discussing the future of the field in our introductory course.  We’ve considered the works of David Merrill, Brent Wilson, Karl Fisch, and current media (journals, news, blogs, etc.).  During our past class meeting I even tweeted the topic and we received great feedback from the Twitterverse. The students are enjoying the topic and appreciate considering a variety of perspectives. So, I ask you – my online friends, colleagues, students, blog readers, parents, and visitors – what do you think is the future of educational technology?

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Clif Mims is a Christian, husband, father, teacher, cancer warrior, and fan of the Mississippi State Bulldogs and Memphis Grizzlies.

59 thoughts on “The Future of Educational Technology”

  1. Trying to determine how education and professional development/training will change within the next year, 5, 10 or 25 years, is like trying to use a magic 8 ball to predict the future when you keep getting the advice “Reply Hazy, Try Again” or “Concentrate and Ask Again”. Considering the ever-changing technological innovations occurring presently, where and how these changes will manifest themselves can only be left to the imagination. Within the next few years, more attention will be given towards Social Learning. Whereby teachers and trainers will begin utilizing social applications and communities to drive learning environments of the participants. I also believe as this field continues to develop more attention will be given towards motivating learners and theories and foundational principles will become more solidified in this field. Although, many have written theories, developed methods, and completed in-depth analysis and studies, instructional designers will create a more distinct, unambiguous foundation that defines the instructional technology field as well as devise a thoroughly balanced understanding of the field.

    When reviewing the discussion between Clark and Hannafin, both significantly differed in their viewpoints with respect to design and methodology. In this intense match of tug-of-war, both adamantly believed the thoughts of the other were inaccurate to say the least. Clark believed that utilizing the fully guided instructional method was the best means to teach novice learners. Through this approach, instructional designers can effectively to equip students with a well-developed skill-set refined by practice and quality feedback.

    In contrast, Hannafin believed that there was not one size fits all approach to instructional design. He declared that the fully guided instructional method cannot apply to all situations because each is uniquely different just like its learner. Creating his own blended definition, optimally guided instruction focused on the guidance and development of the individual.

    The ideologies of both Hannafin and Clark compliment each other. The blending of both their viewpoints reminds me of the gradual release of responsibility model, where the responsibility of learning is transitioned from the teacher to the student who eventually becomes an independent learner. I believe that all learning processes or cycles have a varying mixture of both methods incorporated in its design based on the learning experience or task presented. However, if I had to select one particular model it would be Clark’s fully guided instructional method. I believe that all learners need in-depth instruction on the front end and as their skills develop a gradual lease of the trainer can occur, but a solid foundation must be laid.

  2. There are so many good comments and remarks here that I feel like my comments only just echo what others have said but as I think about how education will change in the next 5, 10, 15 years from now, I think about education, especially adult education and workforce development, becoming more accessible and social. Locally and globally, learning will take place with collaborations and sharing of information in place of the traditional learning experience. Computers will continue to have influence on the learning process but cloud technology will remove barriers that are now associated with using computers which include the expense of buying software, servers.

  3. For the last decade, I have taught public speaking at a community college. I have seen great strides forward in educational technology. . .or not. I will give a few examples of what I have seen and my perception of these “advances,” and then explore the debate between fully guided instruction and optimally guided learning instruction.

    In the ten years that I’ve been teaching, online courses have become much more popular. However, many of the online courses (at the community college and four year level, at least) are regurgitations of the traditional course–with a few discussion boards thrown in. The instructors use very little creativity via technology to enhance learning. I will admit that I was guilty of a lack of creativity in my online courses. Some of the reasons for my reticence were lack of time, lack of education about the most effective use of technologies, and concern about student response. The biggest issue was the push by administration to make the traditional and online courses as similar as possible–so any technology that you used to enhance learning online had to be duplicated in the classroom.

    Students are definitely more adept at using technology than they were when I began teaching. This is a positive. . .or, maybe not. Students are great at finding information. However, I am constantly frustrated with students’ seeming inability to find and apply quality information to their assignments. I am amazed at how many students will google speech topics, rather than drawing upon their own knowledge and experience to choose a topic (I beg them to talk about something that interests them, time and again they can’t give me a reason for choosing the topic they chose). I am appalled at lack of veracity in their research.

    Educational technology has become more accessible. . .maybe. In the last couple of years the faculty at my college have been charged with making our courses accessible. Obviously accessibility is necessary and should be mandatory. However, it seems administration can’t decide what “accessible” means. Faculty are basically called to create courses that can fill the needs of any student with any disability. This “be all things to all learners” mentality leads me into the thought I’ve had throughout this course, which is that the research seems to show that no method of design is going to suit everyone. Universal design is discussed in chapter 36 and on p. 350 it says, “. . .each learner brings a unique set of circumstances that will impact how they learn.” Will future instructional designers be charged to create instruction that can meet the needs of every learner and every circumstance that might effect learning?

    Finally, in the debate between Clark and Hannafin, I side with Clark. I agree that fully guided instruction has proven to be the most effective (research supports the effectiveness of this type of instruction). My favorite statement is on page 375, where Clark says that fully guided instruction is best if there is something that needs to be learned. Otherwise, what the learner is doing is creating “new knowledge.” This statement is, in a nutshell, why I support guided instruction.

    However, I agree with Hannafin in that we should not discount either method. On page 376, Hannafin challenges Clark as to how he will respond if he cannot find fully guided instruction to solve a problem (insect eradication, in this case). Hannafin claims that the ways Clark would react to being unable to locate what he needed, the way he would analyze his sources, etc., are all learner guided. Quite frankly, it seems to me that the answer to this debate is that both methods are effective, depending on the situation. This conclusion circles back to my original question, “Will instructional design, in the future, be expected to be all things to all learners?”

  4. I think the future of educational technology will be a continual evolution of change and growth regarding how technology influences teaching and learning in both education and business settings. I think, like we’ve seen in the past, the devices used in educational settings will continue to change and as those devices change, what we know about learning and instruction will also grow and, at the same time, need to be revisited.

    I think education and professional development training will drastically change over the next 25 years. It is interesting to think about how that shift will happen and how much of learning will take place online versus in person. Many graduate level teaching programs are already online programs, will undergraduate teaching programs also make that shift? Will there be textbooks anymore and how will libraries be used? The possibilities are endless and instructional designers will need to open to thinking about how learning goals can be attained in new ways.

    While I think technology will continue to grow and change, it’s important to acknowledge that as we move forward, the way we look at learning and assessing will also need to broaden. Clark and Hannafin both make vaild arguments to support their point regarding learning. As Clark states, there is research that backs up more traditional ways of teaching and learning, however, Hannafin challenges that if we are moving forward with technology and new ways of thinking, there will need to be some shifts in how teaching and learning environments are designed, and how education takes place. I think technology will continue to advance and the challenge will be finding ways to incorporate that technology in meaningful ways both in the educational settings and in personal lives based on the need of the learners and the skill of the teacher.

    I think the future of educational technology will also need to equip learners with skills for facilitating personal connections as well as teaching technology users how to balance the ability to constantly connect with the need for a break from technology. The expansion of technology will only become more personal and accessible and the need for learners to know how to use technology critically and effectively will continue to grow.

  5. I am all for technological innovations, but we need to have some perspective here. I fear we will have less and less face-to-face instruction. Let’s not allow cost, convenience, and experimentation to fix a problem that is not there. One of my favorite shows, “Shark Tank”, employs a very valuable lesson that can apply to education. The “Sharks” often comment how great a product/invention is, yet it does not fix a problem.

    I think there is a place for games, technology, discover, etc. However, these are not philosophies! They are tools for an ultimate goal. I understand that computer games involve problem-solving skills. Instead of advocating the incorporation of gaming in the classroom, incorporate problem solving. If we “meet the kids where they’re at” too much, they form a distorted view of what education is and is not.

  6. I believe that when it comes to the advancement of the field of educational technology, the sky is the limit. Just since I have been a teacher (which has only been the last 3 years) I have seen the use of technology in the K-12 setting grow exponentially. First grade classrooms with a full set of iPads, intervention programs all on the computer (many of which are in a game format for the younger students), and the increased REQUIRED use of technology by the teacher, are just a few examples to scratch the surface. When administrators come to evaluate a teacher, often times they’re looking for the use of technology in a rigorous lesson. As it as been said many times in this comment thread, the field is only going to continue to grow. Although, I teach in a public school setting, where there is not always the funding for 1:1 technology for all of the students, I do have friends who teach in a private setting where almost all of their lessons and assignments are online, everything is submitted via computer. I know that some private schools have partnered with online high schools and the seniors are having to take at least one class their last year that is FULLY online. As Raquell stated, I think there is a very good chance that online education may become a more available option for K-12 students much sooner than we realize.

    In a higher education setting, we already see the full implementation of online classes and courseware. When I began my undergraduate degree in 2005, not every student in the classroom had a laptop, assignments were still typed, printed and turned in as hard copies that came back to the students with hand written feedback. As time went on, there was more and more emphasis put on the use of the technology and submitting assignments electronically. When I finished my Bachelors and moved to a Masters program, the use of technology was in full swing and more prevalent. Throughout my academic career I have watched the used of technology evolve in the higher education setting. Now I am enrolled in a program that is completely online, something I would not have even considered I would be doing when I graduated high school.

    When taking into consideration the different levels of instructional guidance, I find my opinions at a crossroads. There is a great deal of educational research to back the claims of Clark, however, I think that there is room for both types of learning within the classroom. Direct instruction learning, where the objectives are clearly stated and then assessed based on the instruction delivered, is an instructional model that has been proven to work. But I feel that all education cannot be direct instruction. There needs to be a balance, where discovery learning and self-guided learning are also prevalent. Regardless of the school of thought in which one finds themselves, the field of educational technology only enhances the possibilities of the learning experience, and will continue to do so.

    In addition, it does not matter whether or not the learning is to take place via educational technology or in a traditional setting, there is always going to be a vast need for the educators. As educators, I think it is key that we learn to evolve with this technology and become well versed in the advancements of the field. Paper and pencils are becoming a thing of the past and I do not think it will be too long before they are completely obsolete in an educational setting. This is scary for some, but I feel it should be seen as an exciting advancement. With the use of technology and the vast advancements that are made in the field of educational technology, it is becoming possible to reach students at new levels. The technology give the educator so many options that have never been available before. The advancement of the field is one that I find VERY exciting and something I see continuing to grow to new and unimaginable heights!!

  7. Coming from a K-12 background, educational technology is constantly changing. Since I began teaching, classrooms have gone from chalkboard/whiteboards to Smartboards; desktop computers to iPads/Chromebooks; telephone calls to email/text messaging/Remind101; lecture to collaborative groups to on line learning. As new technologies emerge, education will have to change with it and there will be a growing need for instructional designers to guide this change. One thing I noticed in the reading, however, was some K-12 resistance to that change and this hinders our students because the corporate world is exactly the opposite. The purpose of K-12 education and college is to prepare our students to be productive members in our society and it can’t be done in 4-5 years of college. I agree with Chastity in that more K-12 environments will have to eventually evolve and emulate most colleges and universities offering students the choice between the traditional Monday-Friday get on the bus and come to school, to on line education or a combination of both.

  8. When I first started working at the community college in 1998 as a technician, we still used an electric typewriter to create invoices (in triplicate, thanks to the carbon paper). One day I asked my boss why we did not use the “online” forms that (I had just learned) another department on campus used. Within a year or less, we were no longer authorized to purchase the paper invoices and everything was done electronically. I have not seen a typewriter in over a decade (except for an antique one on display at a local coffee shop). Within another two years, I was able to telecommute from home one afternoon a week.
    It is amazing to me how technology, and educational technology, has expanded over the past 16 years. I went back to school (online) in 2000 to earn an MS in library and information studies, and Web-based distance learning was still quite a new concept at that time, and brand new to me. I started working as a full-time librarian at the college ten years ago, and I now spend the bulk of my days helping students and faculty find the information resources that they need online, responding to students’ questions in email, or communicating with them via Skype. I believe the rate of such changes in educational technology will continue, or even accelerate.
    The language courses I teach on campus have changed in terms of the technology that is used as well. In 2000, all courses were in the classroom on campus. In 2015, we offer hybrid and online courses in several languages. I learned recently that the new edition of our textbook will have an updated online feature that allows students to record video of their dialogues (each from different remote locations), which they can then submit to the instructor for my evaluation, written and audio corrections, etc., without students or instructor ever having to leave home. My impression is that these technologies and similar ones will continue to evolve rapidly and their use in training and education settings will only increase. The number of online courses will most likely continue to increase over the next five to ten years. Within the next decade such technologies will be developed further and enhanced, and I think this will have a huge impact on how schools and colleges operate. My guess is that in another 15 to 25 years, all such institutions will be very different from what they are today, requiring less time on site by all—students, staff and faculty, and there will be increased use of electronic communications for all education and training efforts. Instructional designers will continue to be in demand to help manage the development and navigation of such resources.
    Regarding the debate between Clark and Hannafin, I do not believe the two views are mutually exclusive. I favor Clark’s approach because it is backed by a good amount of evidence-based research. In any case, I think the critical factors center on what learning needs to occur, and what, if any, prior knowledge is required. Depending on the circumstances (as I believe someone already mentioned above), both approaches could very well complement one another.

  9. I am new to the IDT field as a graduate IDT student, and am very interested in reading everyone’s commentary above about the future of IDT. Over the past 3 weeks since beginning to develop my own definition of IDT, I have learned that most experts take a little different spin on defining IDT and the definition continues to evolve. Yet, the common goal of the IDT definition appears to be learning and improving performance outcomes. I am driven to comment a bit differently on what could happen in the future of IDT.

    After reading about the variety of theories and models throughout instructional design, I began to wonder if IDT will continue forward as a broad study and possibly split in to specialty subsets as I am accustomed to in the health care field, specifically the physical therapy profession. For example, I am a physical therapist, but I specialize in the acute care setting. My husband is also a physical therapist and he practices in the orthopedic setting with certifications in a specific orthopedic approach (McKenzie method) and performing dry needling (another specialty/certification). In the field of IDT, perhaps the definition of the IDT profession will remain broad, yet areas of specialties may be introduced.

    As I type this I wonder if this may already exist as I am not fully exposed to this field as a newbie. I do agree that technology will not alone drive the field, just as history demonstrates. I believe that evidence-based practice will continue to develop and support the field. I believe that the reticence of faculty to adopt new methods of instruction may in fact change as universities and institutions slowly require more current forms of instruction be implemented into curriculums. I strongly agree that it is up to the profession to continue to anticipate change and keep ahead of the curve if possible to maintain our professional identity and the future of our field, which means that it is up to all of us!

  10. I think the future of educational technology is unwritten, obviously, but wide open! When I began my second career as a teacher 12 years ago I had to include what technology I was using in my lesson plans. Just a mere 12 years ago an overhead projector was considered technology. Now I wonder where they are buried!

    I think one of the problems with the future of educational technology in K-12 education particularly, are the rapid changes in the field itself! School budgets are tighter than ever and many school districts don’t have the funding to keep updating technology, so I think that creates a barrier to access for many districts. On the issue of access, I think there are also too many assumptions that all kids have access to technology! I’ve worked in a Title 1 elementary school for the past 8 years where I’ve worked with families that are trying to keep the electricity on; they are not worried about Internet access, and the older siblings aren’t going to middle or high school with a cell phone! Even though students today are very tech savvy, it doesn’t mean all of them have access all the time.

    I think regardless of the technology that is available in a school today or in the future one common thread is the ability/willingness of the educators in the building to learn about the technology. Too often I’ve seen technology used as a filler, i.e. put a student on a learning game on the computer, but there isn’t a connection to what the child is doing to his/her learning goals. Even beyond the ability/willingness issue of the educators, is whether or not ongoing training is available to support the professional development of the educators using the technology with any measure of effectiveness! Too often teachers are given a couple of hours of training and then they are left to figure out how they are going to implement the tool with their students. With little to no support and a lack of time to “figure it all out” the technology becomes busy work in many cases. When I was teaching first grade 7 years ago a company claimed that if a student completed a program from beginning to end the student would be reading on grade level by the end of the program. Not once did I see that happen! In part because the teachers were not trained on how to use the program, read and interpret the data the program provided to make instructional decisions for the benefit of the student. So the technology, whether that’s a desktop computer sitting in today’s classroom, or Google glasses being worn by a student of the future, the educators working with that student still have to know how to use that technology to design meaningful, purposeful instruction.

  11. The future of educational technology will be defined by the context in which it exists, just as it is today and just as it was yesterday. I say that meaning advancements in technology are always around the corner and as society embraces newer technologies, education will inevitably adopt it and adapt it in order to employ it.

    Looking back over my own education I saw the use of films and other various types of traditional media, along with computers, and eventually the internet. This leads me to believe that education will not be abandoning technology anytime soon.

    How we, as instructional designers, use technology will depend on how we desire to stay current with societal trends, and if we are lucky enough to employed by a firm which embraces technology. I have listened to a lecture which insisted that universities, today, are producing instructional designers that would have been effective in the 1970’s (saying we are being taught behind-the-times methods). I disagree with this statement as I believe it is our responsibility to transfer our knowledge from the design realm, into the technology realm. In other words, the delivery methode (technology) we use for instruction may change but the day-to-day models we use aren’t dependent on a single technology.

    To quote a song made popular by Frank Sinatra, “The Best Is Yet to Come” as we are the future of instructional technology. Regardless of professional setting, we will put our own stamp on the timeline of Instructional Design and Technology.

  12. I agree with many of posts here that technology will soon be expanding. As for the barriers, I’m still on the fence about those because as technology becomes more prevalent in our society, there some school systems that are willing to incorporate technology into the classroom just to keep up. I’ve heard from some of my dancers that live in Bartlett, TN that the honors program at Bartlett High gives its honor students iPads for coursework, email correspondence, etc. I’m not implying that all schools will suddenly drop that much money for each student to have an iPad or laptop, but it does show that technology is becoming a major part of learning. Even in the corporate world for training, much of the training is done online or on some form of technological equipment (computers, smartphones, video conferences, webinars). There are even websites designed especially for in-class online learning. and are two that I know of that encourage participation via technology. Many schools within the city offer online classes to students that don’t fair well from in-class learning or who may be in situations that prohibit proper school attendance. Even course textbooks are available (cheaper) as an online version. It’s just a matter of time before educators have no other choice but to become fluent in using various forms of technology within the classroom, especially being that our students of today are practically raised with some form of online instruction.

    1. Chastity – I agree with a lot of what you’ve said in your post. I think one of the biggest challenges for districts is the cost of technology and the fact that its still rapidly changing. No sooner does a school or district get the latest desktop computer in their computer lab and 1:1 programs are all the rage. I’m sad to hear that honors students get Ipads when I’m sure there are many deserving students who could really the technology.

  13. It is obvious that in the future all available tools and methods of instruction will be used. Earliest man used tools at hand, building one upon another until here we are today. Drones in war have become almost like a video game, yet we still need foot soldiers. Part of the reading that really stuck with me were the comments about how TV and radio were going to revolutionize learning. I remember the first black and white TV we owned and how we all went to see the first color TV on our block. Fifty years later, have they impacted significantly our way of learning? Probably. But the major use of both is entertainment. I submit that the same can be said about the internet. What is its major use today? I see a blurring between the lines of entertainment and learning. I learn a great deal from TV, but I am entertained at the same time. Same with the net. I have a 13 year old daughter who is a brilliant student and goes to arguably the best school in the area. Yet she complains about the same things in the same courses that I did at that age. The more things change etc. I like the idea that IDT is not a science, but an art, like medicine. Or law. Suggested or hinted at or no answers are sometimes better than real or right or true ones. But 2 + 2 always has to equal 4. And one can only fall so fast (terminal velocity). To define learning is like trying to catch lightning in a bottle. Orwell’s 1984 seems quaint today, the year having come and gone without Big Brother really watching us. So what will it be like? Probably a lot of change and not very much. I believe, based on my own education, that there will always be the dynamic between the student and the teacher, the material and whatever design, method, or what have you is employed. That has been my experience, and I see the same happening with my daughter, whose school issues Macbook Air laptops to each student. But I believe that any tool has its use and place, and like any tool, is as effective as the hands that wield it.
    Clark embraces the fully guided instructional methods. Hannafin the minimally guided, though he comes up with his term, optimally guided, a seemingly sliding scale dependent on the situation, the learner, and the material being presented. Like most issues, there are experts on each side that both praise and condemn each position. They almost seem to argue like attorneys, and one wonders if they could and would switch sides and the answer jumps to mind, Yes, they could and would. It seems to me that designers should not fall in love their design and thus lose sight of the goal: to teach. Nietzsche was known as the dancing philosopher due to his ability to effortlessly change sides of an argument without missing a beat. I think that there is plenty of room for both. The Kahn Academy was developed where homework is done in the classroom and teaching happens at home, a complete reversal of how school is set up today. Picasso had to learn to paint portraits that looked like photographs before he could paint a face with six eyes. There are many ways to think. I like Hannafin, but I see Clark’s point. My philosophy is whatever works.?

  14. As many have also posted, I believe technology use is only going to grow in K-12 classrooms, higher education, and professional development. I have been a public school teacher for six years now and the way educators use technology has changed quite drastically just since 2009. There are now far more smartboards, iPads/iPods, personal devices, and interactive media readily available for teachers and students to use in their classrooms. I see kindergarteners to high school seniors using technology every school day. Many times, I see technology being used to facilitate differentiation in the classroom. The students who are excelling, are many times, given extra opportunities to deepen their knowledge with different computer activities and research projects. The struggling students receive more practice time and intervention via computers when using programs such as iStation or EasyCBM. In the K-12 setting, I see technology innovations being directed at making instruction more adaptable to meet students where they are and fulfill their specific learning needs.

    In higher education, I definitely see Personal Learning Environments becoming more useful/effective than Learning Management Systems (LMSs) such as Moodle. That is, unless the LMSs begin to adapt to remain viable. I also think that multiuser virtual environments (MUVEs) could become a staple in e-Learning, especially in higher education. I think MUVEs would lend themselves easily to discovery-based learning (i.e. Hannafin’s side) that I think is already quite prevalent in universities. While there is a dearth of research now, I could see MUVEs emerging as another alternative to LMSs. MUVEs will become easier to create and peoples’ familiarity with them will grow as the technology evolves.

  15. I found it interesting to read the responses from 2008 about the future of educational technology. Several predictions made then make predictions today seem like an echo. Growth, though persistent, has been rather slow. Many people in 2015 are still suspicious and wary of educational technologies and their perceived usefulness. For example, I recently had a professor tell me that “humanities and technology do not mix” (private personal correspondence to protect the innocent and naïve, 2015).

    More classrooms use technology today than 5-10 years ago, but the majority of U.S. schools are nowhere near a 1:1 implementation of computers. Unfortunately, when I looked for statistics on this, the most recent year reported was 2008 on the National Center for Education Statistics. There are still a number of challenges to overcome in terms of implementing educational technology and revolutionizing education, some which harken back to early 20th Century, such as teacher attitudes, lack of training, and financial restraints. Newer challenges, such as internet availability and access, have also emerged in more recent years. Nevertheless, there appears to have been an increase in the use of technology since this discussion thread began some 7 years ago. Also, online learning has grown tremendously in both P-12 and higher education.

    Like Niki, MNorris, Stacey, and others posted, I, too, believe that technology is “here to stay.” Educational technology is making an impact on the world, and as children grow up with technology integrated into their daily experience, this will affect how they change the world of their future. Because of this, I think that the field of instructional design and technology will continue to grow and expand its reach.

    The chapter reading about the changing nature of design and the debate about direct verses indirect instruction in Reiser & Dempsey (2012) suggest to me that the way we understand “design” today is evolving even as we learn the historical foundations of our field. I would add to this understanding that the role we play as instructional designers will likely change as we work in the field professionally. For instance, there is a growing need for technology infrastructure to support and sustain technology initiatives within an institution or system. Designers are posited as the ideal candidates to help select appropriate technology tools for such initiatives, and they are also the ones most needed to provide faculty development to utilize these tools in a way that is effective to meet the educational objectives.

  16. The future of educational technology is endless. I remember begging the teacher to clean the erasers, and now there are SMART Boards in almost every classroom. The evaluations teachers now endure require the use of some type of technology. I just believe that technology is here to stay. Well, yes there are decisions to be made. What kind of learning needs to be there? I am actually torn. As a learner, I enjoy the direct instruction method proposed by Richard E. Clark. As a student you greatly benefit from individualized instruction. Your questions are answered. You will become well-versed in the area you are receiving attention. Many argue that if the skill itself is complex, then the student had to learn sub skills in order to achieve their goal.

    Now, this will greatly affect professional development within the coming years. I have attended professional development for years since becoming a teacher, and one thing I have noticed is that it is transforming more and more technology-centered. When I first began teaching, the instructor spent more time ‘traveling” through the textbook. Gradually, there has become more professional development involving the use of technology within the classrooms. In about 25 years, I expect the professional development will be centered more on how to provide fully guided instruction and/ or outcome-based instruction using only tablets. There will be very little need for pencil and paper. They will be taught how to sign electronically in elementary school.

    The development of the instructor will need to be based on both types of learning simply because both are beneficial. Both Clark and Hannafin’s approaches compliment the other. If a student were to receive an introductory lesson on parts of speech that is fully guided, then to correct grammar mistakes in a text could be a outcome-based game. Each of the types of learning can be used in conjunction with the other to ensure the student is retaining information at the appropriate rate.

  17. I think that educational technology will expand in the future. Some of the barriers (technology access, affordability and educational platforms) that existed 5 years ago have already diminished a great deal. I imagine in 5 years some of these barriers will not even be on the “barriers list”. The fact that Universities offer complete online educational programs did not exist 15-25 years ago and here we are today completing our required course work and tasks completely online. I can remember my first hybrid course and many of the struggles (internet access, cost, connectivity issues, transferring files and storage) that occurred in those courses that are now only minor matters (if they occur at all). There are still barriers/issues such as security, digital citizenship and identifying the right educational platforms that exist with educational technology. Those issues are being reviewed, addresses, and revised daily. There are teams of instructional designers, programmers, IT processors, IT techs, etc -who are employed to “tackle” those issues.
    I think very few issues/barriers of today will exist in the next 5, 10, 15+ years, I also believe that with the rapid increase of technology tools, equipment and educational platforms – educational technology will exist for many years to come. As extinct as still films and pictures are in education today – as will chalk boards, white boards in years to come.
    Lastly, to touch on the views on instructional methods discussed in Chapter
    38 of the Reiser and Dempsey textbook: I think that there will be a collaboration of minimal guidance in instruction and fully guided instruction. I think that the type of instruction method depends on 1. the subject, 2. the learner, and 3. the learning outcomes. If the learning objective is to teach students there is a a “right and wrong way” of completing a task then fully guided instruction would be suitable. If the learning objective is to evolve the learners, allow them to establish their own outcomes, to build onto material presented and to formulate their own ideas, then minimal to moderate guidance in instruction will suffice. The key is also to know your learner. Providing both types of learning environments may help to identify the learners’ needs and abilities.
    As an administrator in a higher education learning environment, I see the need for both learning methods. A good way of achieving this is incorporating collaborative learning and peer-to-peer settings. As of today, I can not lean more toward one over the other, because I still see the need for both.

  18. In the next five years, most higher education learning will be e-learning and involve virtual social learning communities; this is due in part to the ease of e-learning. In K-12 education, the shift is to have a laptop or Ipad for every student. Students take quizzes on an erasable transparency and grade the quiz themselves through software uploaded on the teacher’s Elmo. Most of the state achievement tests will be computer based, and most students will dropbox their assignments to the teacher. Professional development and training will be developed by a certified instructional designer with the principles of one of the models such as ADDIE being used in the creation of the training.

    In the next ten years, Instructional technics will continue to be a major component of instructional education. The delivery system for instruction will be a majority of web-based applications, computer based training modules, weblogs, etc. Professional development will continue to be designed by certified instructional designers but with a more scientific slant on cognitive science, learning science, or organizational development.

    In the next twenty-five years, education and professional training will have moved entirely from a blended approach where some tradition techniques are used with technology to a total e-learning environment. E-learning will be more complex than ever increasing the demand for skilled certified instructional designers.

    On the issue of fully guided instruction versus minimal to moderate instruction, Richard Clark and Michael Hannafin differ greatly. According to Clark, fully guided instruction is compatible with “human cognitive architecture” because it provides full explanations of the concepts and procedures the student is required to know. Fully guided instruction is defined as “a change in long-term memory.” One of the arguments with guided learning is that there is a “reduction in the adaptability of the resulting learning.” “Procedural learning results in contextualized, rigid, and automated knowledge that cannot be adapted to handle differ from the ones in instruction.” On the other hand is the argument that you have to learn how to do something step-by-step before you can adapt what you learned to other situations. Hannafin used the following information from the National Science Foundation Standards, students should ask questions and test their answers to those questions, in his argument for minimal to moderate guidance. Hannafin argued that fully guided instruction is good for external learning requirements but not for self-directed or spontaneous learning because it does not take into consideration the individual’s knowledge, skill, and understanding. Clark has a half century of data to back up his claim that fully guided instructional is the best form of instruction. Furthermore, Clark felt like Hannafin issue was on of student motivation and not different types of learning. Hannafin stated that Clark did not take into account the rapidly changing design field and the values and beliefs of the person who instruction is being designed for, and I think that is the key issue. The minimal to moderate instruction approach is geared more towards individualized learning. The prior knowledge of each student can better be taken into consideration with Hannafin’s approach. Both Clark’s and Hannafin’s views can co-exist because each view has something to offer the learner. When used together, Clark’s and Hannafin’s views take into consideration the rapidly evolving use of technology in the classroom, the diverse needs of learners, and proven strategies that have yielded positive results for over a half century.

    My point of view leans more towards Clark, but I feel like it should lean more towards Hannafin. With fully guided practice, you learn how to do that one topic, but does that type of instruction really enable you to develop problem solving skills? I feel like I learn best by fully guided instruction because that is all I have known. I want to get away so much fully guided practice, but it is hard when you have to teach to a test. When time is a major consideration and you have a teacher effect score to worry about, it is easy to have fully guided instruction as the bulk of your instruction. After reading Clark and Hannafin go back and forth on the issue, I am going to continue to try to integrate more minimal to moderate instruction in my instruction, and I think the best way to accomplish that is through technology.

    Information from Trends and Issues In Instructional Design and Technology Third Edition by Reiser and Dempsey were used in this post.

  19. I am still very new to the field of Instructional Design and Technology, but I know from working in the admissions department at a community college that online courses, distance learning, e-learning, call it what you will, is very much in demand. I don’t think it’s going anywhere, but it will continue to grow in acceptance. The need for instructional designers will be felt more and more as this takes place. Virtually all students are carrying around smartphones, tablets, and laptops most, if not all of the time. From my discussions with college students, it seems that they want to see education adapt to the technology that is already a part of their daily lives. I think that education technology will continue to become more accepted and commonplace, and it will be seen as an indespensible part of education. While there is concern that there are teachers who are intimidated by technology, I think we will gradually see this as less of a problem as more Millennials (who for the most part have never known life without technology) join the ranks of teachers. I also think it is helpful if we remember that pencils were once innovative technology, albeit not the digital kind, and that modern educational technologies are an extension of previously existing technologies. The teachers who first used scantron machines and overhead projectors were probably just as awkward and intimidated by those as modern teachers are with laptops, mobile devices, and other technologies. There will always be awkwardness as people adjust to change. The future is scary and exciting all at the same time, and I can’t wait to see what happens next!

  20. I agree with many of the previous posts that state that the use of technology in the classroom will continue to increase in the years to come. Although I envision the use of educational technology growing, there are several barriers to this for ALL students.

    1. Funding; although technology is a great addition to the learning environment it is also expensive to purchase and maintain. This may pose a huge challenge for some school systems and families. Private vs. Public Schools ability to integrate technology will differ significantly.
    2. Resistance to change: many educators are resistant to change. This may be because they find themselves in a comfort zone and do not feel competent to implement technology into the learning environment. Research will be essential to this process by portraying that technology can provide the same or better results that older methods have produced.
    3. Professional Development: many teachers will have to be educated on how to effectively integrate technology into the classroom. This will take time and money.

    1. Student comfort levels with technology. This generation of students has used technology from birth and are extremely familiar with the devices.
    2. The speed at which technology is evolving and becoming a part of everyday life. With technology being integrated into daily life, it is reasonable to say that it will be essential to integrate it into the learning environment.

    Educational Technology is here to stay but it will be up to the designers, administrators, teachers, etc. to ensure that it is integrated effectively into the classroom.

    1. I am glad that you brought up the barriers to integrating technology in the classroom. My son attends a private school where he was required to purchase a Mac book from the school. I was amazed at the technology used in his classroom. I had never heard of dropbox or Prezi. The videos he made for his English class made me feel old and left behind. I teach math and the cost of purchasing computer-based software for my students was overwhelming. I did use Edmodo this year, but I had trouble checking out the mobile labtop cart because other teachers are also trying to integrate technology into their instruction. Another barrier that I have run into is that I am not aware of what technology is available.

  21. As a society we are connected. As educators we constantly crave to improve. It only makes sense that technology in the educational arena will flourish. Using technology to enhance instruction makes the process easier for stakeholders, promotes creativity, and adds a dynamic component to the classroom.

    1. Brouke, I wish I had a faculty full of folks like you! Sadly, not all educators (at least in higher education) constantly crave to improve their craft. Many do, but there are some who are comfortable teaching the same way they were taught because that’s what they’ve always done before. I agree with you that technology enhances instruction, so I continue to help my faculty try to learn ways to make the teaching and learning experience for everyone involved.

  22. I feel like future of educational technology is limitless. It is hard to pinpoint where it is going in the future. I do feel like the future of educational technology is going to be customized for each individual learner. Anyone that has ever taught a class know that there are students on completely different levels in any class, but they all get the same lesson. I feel like when educational technology is starting to shift in a way where more instruction with technology will differentiate according to each student’s ability. I teach math, and there is some great software out there that is already doing this for students, but I feel like the future of this technology will work seamlessly with the teachers’ direct instruction.

    1. I too am a math teacher. I share your opinion that the future of educational technology is limitless. I am looking for a great computer-based technology for my students. As teachers are pushed more and more to differentiate instruction, I think technology will play a key role in instruction

  23. I recently read an article in Technology Education magazine and the title of the article was “Technology in Education: The Future is Now”. Just the title alone answers the question of the future of educational technology. As a classroom teacher who taught in the 1980’s, I remember when some classrooms had technology and others did not. Technology has proven to be such a critical component in the instructional process that now it is no longer optional. Even back in the 80’s, success was observed in the classrooms where teachers were integrating technology in their classrooms. The integration of technology in the classroom literally changed the dynamics of instruction for both the teachers and the students. Although there are many positives with educational technology, it does come with its pros and cons. Technology allows for instant access to information, it allows for the teaching of the same concept in different formats to address various learning styles and technology just makes learning fun for both the teacher and the student. On the flip side technology is not always equally accessible to all students many times for reasons that are beyond their control. Also professional development is a key component in the successful implementation of educational technology and it is not given the attention it needs and sometimes actually overlooked. But despite the obstacles, we must press forward with the integration of technology. A big focus needs to be placed on ensuring that teachers receive the tools they need to be successful with technology. Educational applications and technology will continue to improve and reach students that in the past may have been unreachable. Technology will allow teachers and students to explore learning in completely new and exciting ways. New innovations and advancements in technology will allow educators to explore educational possibilities in ways that we have yet to imagine.

  24. I don’t know what lies ahead but I believe educational technology is certainly here to stay. I am often amazed at the exciting new products of technology and can hardly wait to explore them and their effects on my students. The technologies we know now will change and merge, at an increasingly rapid pace. With technology changing, how does an instructional designer keep up with it all? I believe with technology constantly evolving Instructional designers must continue to synthesize their knowledge and apply critical thinking skills to produce quality instructional solutions. Transitioning into 21st century instructional design practices requires constant adaptation and learning. I think it is clear that the future of educational technology will require change, transition, learning, and support from stakeholders.

  25. I am optimistic that the future of educational technology will grow in a better way. Its importance will increase as technology makes education available almost to everyone. Educational or training systems will be at the forefront in the information age.

    One of the interesting phenomena of futuristic educational technology is going to be about learning environments. Physical walls of classrooms will effectively become obsolete. Instead, we will talk about virtual classrooms as very normal. It will be great to hear kids saying they have virtual classmates from different continents of the world.

    As a consequence, the future will be more challenging for educational technology experts. One of the reasons is that their audience could be from anywhere on the globe. Such audience will bring factors like cultural values into the dimensions for educational technologists. Learning about different cultures will be part of what designers need to do when preparing educational products.

    Additionally, I think that future educational technology will be more about informal education than formal. Learners will have more choices for sources of education. It will be possible that students may learn course content not necessarily from educational institute. Then, some higher education systems could be limited to evaluating and validating the achievement levels of students who might have learned their courses from different places using different technologies of their choices.

  26. Regarding Clark and Hannafin, I lean towards Clark, but only as it applies to direct instruction. With direct instruction, the research suggests fully guided instruction offers the best results. However, direct instruction may be only one part of the learning experience… application, projects, discovery, play; these are all valuable experiences that can supplement direct instruction and provide an opportunity for the benefits Hannafin discusses.

  27. I think in the next 5-10 years we will see an increase in leveraging societal trends in technology for use in education. Personal devices, social media, and learning management systems will be utilized. Some initiatives may be based on concepts and research from the field of instructional design, others may be driven by cost-saving concerns.

    As interactive entertainment (i.e., gaming) becomes more popular and more mainstream, I expect we’ll see increased development in multiuser educational gaming as instruction/assessment, leveraging the motivations inherent in these entertainment experiences.

    Parallel to increased technology in the coming decade(s), I expect we may see a backlash, as we as a society become concerned with the potential limitations and potential harmful side effects of increased technology use and exposure, especially among younger users. Researchers will hopefully address some of the areas which have unanswered questions (e.g., effectiveness of learning connected to game motivation). Some of this research may fall in favor of technological vehicles for instruction, and some may prove that concerns were warranted. I expect we’ll see examples of both.

  28. I don’t think education would be the same without the technology, and as technology develops and evolves, so will education and how technology is used. Teachers will need to know how to use the technology and be open to the change in their classrooms. Students will have more access to personal technology as well.

    I often think of the Jetson’s or the book Feed by M.T. Anderson when thinking about the endless possibilities of technology advancement. Even between comparing 5 – 25 years, there will be so much of a change. Within the immediate future, I think there will be improvements to our current technology the use of tablets, SMART boards, etc. There should be more of a push for student centered technology to engage and challenge students with real-world application. I believe the majority of the more drastic changes will happen in the more distant future. Unfortunately, a large part of what will determine the change in educational technology will be funding.

    To better assist teachers, there needs to be professional development and technology coaches in the schools. I love going to technology conferences and learning so many different things all at once and then going back in my classroom and implementing these. This year we have to create a Professional Growth Goal for our new teacher evaluative system. I decided to choose incorporating technology in the classroom and lessons. My colleagues looked at me like I was crazy and said, “But you are so good with technology!” While flattered, I had to admit that while I am good with the technology, I often find it hard to integrate it into my lessons especially when not every student has a device. Our technology specialist also admitted that she thought it was often harder to use with math.

  29. I am in agreement with the majority of my peers on here that educational technology will eventually be mainstreamed into classrooms and used effortlessly. We are getting there, but it ultimately is still a new concept for most. It is really hard to think of what technology will be like in 10-25 years (I.e. I’m still waiting on the flying cars and sky highways that I drew and thought of 20 some odd years ago lol).
    When reading about Clark and Hannafin, I can see how this mindset could be split. Although there is the research leading towards clark’s direct teaching mindset, you ultimately want your student to take what they learned and use it in any situation. That is where Hannafin I believe couldn’t get passed. Honestly I’m just as stuck on the topic. As an educator, you hear all the time to not just feed the information and test, but to have students actively engaged and discovering and creating. I do feel as though I am on the side of Hannafin nay because of my unique teaching situation. Teaching early childhood, mainly pre-k, a lot of our curriculum is allowing the young child to make discoveries on their own. My classroom is set up so that they might be able to do this. What I do not believe is that discovery is everything. You do need to have that direct instruction and as children get older that is more so true. I think that Hannafin did believe that a mixture of the two mind sets where essential, but I do not believe that Clark felt the same.
    Now, as an instructional designer, my mindset changes a bit. Direct instruction is the hallmark of what we do, especially when you are trying to gets group of people to understanda concept via online learning. We must get our message across and must do it in the most efficient and effective way possible. The attention span of someone any age is not too long, especially when they are learning online, so direct instruction is definitely best in the ID world. These are just my thoughts on the. Educational technology debate.

  30. During my 20 plus years of teaching, I have seen technology begin and flourish. I remember the days of no technology. We later had the 21st Century Classrooms and began to put computers in some of the classrooms. Computer labs have developed in each of our schools. Each school in our district now has at least 2 computer labs. The middle school where I work has 3 computer labs and laptops carts for the students. Last school year the TCAP Writing Assessment was required by all students and was done on the computers. Since standardized testing is beginning to require technology and keyboarding skills, technology will be around in the future.
    The type of technology that will be utilized in the future is unknown, but there is a definite need for technology. The emerging technologies will have a positive influence and impact on education. The role of the teacher will be more a facilitator where they will guide the student learning. Classes like these IDT classes will lend itself to many ideas and uses of incorporating meaningful technology into a classroom. Teachers need to be willing to explore new technologies with their students. These students are digital natives and are not afraid to use technology unlike some of the teachers. Teacher Education Programs should incorporate technology classes to prepare the educators for the future of educational technology. If the teachers are properly prepared they will not be hesitant to incorporate technology into their curriculum.
    More virtual schools and more online learning will probably become more plentiful in the future as well as more creative ways of utilizing new technologies. All of these new technologies will improve the future of learning in the classroom and in the business world.

  31. I believe that technology will continue to change in ways we cannot imagine. I might say that I believe 20 years from now all students will have personal laptops, tablets, or SMART phones, but I feel like we’ll have some crazy new technology that will antiquate all of those technologies.

    I believe that eventually schools will get to a point where all learning is aided by technology but I still find it hard to imagine an education in which technology replaces the teacher.

    I don’t imagine the complete integration of technology is going to happen without a fight. as has been the case with all new frontiers of education, but I think that schools will slowly move towards more seamless use of technology.

    Schools will never reach a time that change does not continue though. Even once we at full technology integration, there will be something new. If all teachers are using technology in the same way, students will still be bored. No matter how much technology expands and is implemented into schools the need for change and growth will never end.

  32. This is what I think and hope the future of educational technology has in store for us.

    I think…
    * educational technology is here to stay. It will continue to grow and become more sophisticated. Virtual worlds, real-life simulations, and immersive experiences will allow students to solve problems, build things, and have experiences that wouldn’t be possible without technology.
    * we’ll move beyond thinking about 1:1 initiatives and providing a device for every student. More time will be spent figuring out how to manage all of the various devices that students bring to school. (This is already happening in some places. BYOD!)
    * software developers will continue to create instructional resources that are device agnostic.
    * teachers will continue to feel pressure to use all of this technology in a meaningful way.
    * the need for teaching digital literacy will become more and more apparent.

    I hope…
    * the demand for Instructional Designers continues to go up as we realize we need professionals to help create quality learning experiences.
    * we realize that just because someone is a “digital native” that doesn’t mean they automatically know how to use educational technology to create a learning experience.
    * professional development isn’t an afterthought.
    * we don’t forgot about the importance of being able to communicate and collaborate with other people — even if that communication and collaboration happens virtually. (Personal note: I have young children. I worry about the amount of screen time they get. I don’t want us to lose sight of the importance of personal connections.)

  33. Corrections:
    Whereas, Innovative educational technology leaders will thrive and continuously shape the future of “Educational technology” to remind us that in this ever changing highly volatile field of educational technology “change is the only constant”.

  34. As we will be continuously pondering and striving to unleash the fathomless potential of Educational Technology, two questions will always take the center stage. First, what is the end goal of utilizing technology in education? Second, how utilization of more and more technology, inquiry based learning, enormous capturing of student data will lead to the balancing act of privacy of personal data.
    Many technological phenomena to impact the Educational technology will come and go without leaving major trace of it but certainly pervasive technological changes with long lasting ground breaking impact will force educators to adapt and embrace to compete and survive. Whereas, Innovate educational technology leaders will thrive and continuously shape the future of “Educational technology” to remind us that in this ever changing highly volatile field of educational technology “change is the only variable”.
    In this exciting time with enormous potentiality and Innovation; possibility of failure should not cripple us rather encourage us to pursue for dream to offer next ground breaking education technology for countless generations to come. And finally, the focus should not be either technology or teaching; rather to optimize learning environment where learners will learn new skills with fun and creativity.

  35. Educational technology, the use of technology in education, is here to stay. The challenge is how to integrate it seamlessly. How can teachers empower students to use various technological tools to access knowledge, enhance learning, and demonstrate mastery?

    Most teachers don’t have the time to increase their level of comfort with newer technologies and strategies. The best teachers I observe are those who really are more facilitators of the learning process. Of course, sometimes the distribution of knowledge comes from the teacher but real connections are made in the student brain is when they seek out answers to questions and find the answers on their own. Or, better yet, come up with more questions to dig deeper.

    I hope that students (and teachers) are allowed more freedom to break away from cookie-cutter technology projects. When students are given a chance to choose the tech, the project becomes something different. The students take more ownership of the product and often produce something that is more indicative of their learning experience.,

  36. The future of educational technology will be impacted by how educational institutions and corporate training facilities apply pedagogy, theories, and principles of instruction and learning with the integration of new technologies. It will be important for instructional designers to understand how to manage the cognitive load as the richness of media improves, design programs where ill-structured problems can be solved, and provide a framework for developing mobile and ubiquitous learning. If instructional designers can understand, adopt, and develop the concepts of gaming, then apply them to learning and instruction will change problem-based learning, situated learning, and inquiry learning. There have been several games (i.e. Fable and Infamous) that allow gamers to make their own decision to determine their own outcome endings. This style of play does not follow a specific predetermined path to complete game with designated ending. The player had to make decisions throughout the game as conflicting situations arise and based on those decisions their ending is presented. The artificial intelligence and programming within the game also changes how you enact with the characters and the environment and vice versa. Instructional designers can create ill-structured problems for situations will multiple open-ended solutions. This would impact the decisions the learner will make when they are faced with real problems.

  37. Computers, technology, and all the other technical tools available are great for education.
    Just now I have to look for a word (nigh) that was at the end of a posting. I use Google to search for another meaning to this word that I know and I could understand the sentence. Without this information I could not proceed and post inside the blog. Then, all available technology helps me to understand and learn. On the other hand, in my classes my students are allowed to use computers and anything that can help to understand the class. I call this the “i-family members”. They are allowed to use anything in technology after the 10 or 15 minutes in the class. The first 10 to 15 minutes are for them to concentrate in explanations or my class/lecture. The last five years I have permitted and not all the i-family in class and observed how the class develops, from good grades to bad grades depending on what they were doing in class. My opinion is that a well prepared class can improve learning in the class, it depends on how the class was prepared and if the teacher knows how to implement technology in the classroom. There are always students that use technology for everything and the day of the exam they failed because the i-family cannot be used. How to change this is a good question but I believe can be done. I am working on it.
    For the future, I believe the use of technology can improve learning and it is here to stay and more changes will come. I do not expect big changes because technology in the classroom has been used for a long time. The way it is presented and the visual presentation seen in tablets, mobile phones, and Apps accessibility is changing. Training on how to use all resources and how teachers and students see technology as a tool needs improvement.

  38. What do I think is the future of educational technology? Let me share this story, My good friend was telling me about his great grandmother’s 90th birthday, this was when he was younger, probably 20 years ago, he asked her what she thought was the greatest thing that happened in her life. He expected her to say sending a man to the moon, or television, something along a technical route. He said she answered poignantly, by saying it was her family’s acquiring of a new style of kerosene lamp that allowed them to effectively and easily do things after dark. a fairly shocking but paradigm shifting technology, conquering darkness.

    In a similar vein I know a cardiologist who doesn’t own a stethoscope. He has a pocket ultrasound device that not only allows him to hear the hear but see it as well. His perspective is why not use what’s available. It helps him make decisions in a more timely and accurate manner. Imagine, and this is likely, a stethoscope could become obsolete.

    I say this to say that technology is constantly evolving. Think of the holding power of Moore’s law. What about quantum computing and IBM’s Watson. I taught my oldest son how to use a mouse for the computer when he was 18 months old. I thought that was pretty neat. My youngest son, who is 5, I didn’t even bother. He just wants to swipe everything he sees with a screen. That’s only a 3 ½ year time span.

    Our chapters address issues related to current technological advances, rich media, web 2.0, e-learning, etc., Chapter 37 begins for me to address the more important point of existing within an ever changing framework. This framework being the constant, predictable evolution of technology with an almost impossible chance of knowing what the future holds. In 10 years the technology could be so different that it will dictate a paradigm shift that we can not imagine at this time. High school students are taking classes on-line. What role will physical buildings play in tomorrow’s “schools?” Are we losing our social intelligence (I think the answer is yes, but this is a separate discussion)?

    Design as a science…. This strikes at the psychology of education and intellect. Is design “art”? Absolutely. Does it have to be a science? Who says the two are that different? Look at Michelangelo’s work and you are looking at science. He was a master at using the phi, the divine ratio, as it’s called by one of it’s many names. You can also see this in the great architecture like the Pyramids and the Parthenon. So science and art is a mixed bag occasionally.

    I love thinking about technology and how best to incorporate it into education. It’s why I’m pursuing my degree in this field. But like any tool used incorrectly it becomes cumbersome and potentially wrong. Instructional design, whether science or art, will have to live on, if only to give the technology to come a universe to expand into.

  39. Technology has made a tremendous impact on education, and will continue to shape its future. Educational Technology can be found on every level of education, whether it is elementary education, secondary education, and of course higher education. The utilization of media to enhance learning is the direction educators will continue to move in. Now, devices such as IPads, Chrome Books, and so forth are being used in the classroom to make learning more interactive or engaging for students. In the long run, exposing students to multiple approaches to learning, as well as teaching students how to use various technologies creates a new level of digital literacy.

    Reflecting on some things that are taking place on most campuses, elarning is becoming quite popular. More and more people are beginning to invest their time in taking asynchronous courses. Whether it is due to convenience or preference, students are becoming more adept in the use of Web 2.0 tools. Also, these type of courses are encouraging students to explore other media that might enrich their learning experience.

    A trend is beginning to occur across campuses. Many schools are looking towards the implementation of Open Content, technology rentals (laptops, IPads, digital materials, etc.), and attempting to make their campus more digital. Some schools have gone 70-100% digital, and have been successful. It wouldn’t surprise me if at least 30% of universities within the next 10 years are 70% digital.

    Newer and more sophisticated technologies and media will be produced and implemented in the classroom. Yet, I believe that Educational Technology will be the iron fist that guides the continuum of educating learners through the creation of good instruction, supported or enhanced by effective media

  40. Review of chapters 29-34 as well as reading from chapters 37 served as a compass for my reflection on how professional development/training is likely to change in the next 5-25 years. In thinking about changes that will take place in the coming years not only did I consider the various forms of technology mentioned in the chapters for this module, but I also began to reflect on the research that I performed regarding Diane Gayeski for project three. Merging the information obtained from both sources revealed a pattern in the rapidly evolving technologies and trends in areas of educational and professional development/training. I predict that this evolution of new technologies and trends will continue throughout the years with the implementation of more astonishing technologies that expand far beyond anything that we are able to fathom. I envision the incorporation of the newer and more sophisticated technologies, as well as educators who are competent in the utilization of the newer technologies as a requirement of educational institutions in the coming years. With the realization/identification of the benefits of effective instruction (educationally, economically and professionally) I think that instructional designers will be a mandatory team member for the vast majority of businesses as well as educational facilities across the globe.

    I would like to see scholars in the field find a happy medium between the scientific as well as the artistic benefits of Instructional Design. While I feel that one cannot refute the implications of empirical processes, correspondingly the creativity necessary to design instruction is a mandatory characteristic of a designer as well.

  41. I definitely think educational technology is here to stay. I think you will see more and more e-learning especially in high schools so that the students can adapt for college. Most colleges now have online courses and more and more students are choosing to take those online courses. Also more K-12 schools are doing BYOD as well as some businesses. Teachers will need guidance on how to integrate these technologies into their curriculum. I think the only downfall to technology is getting teachers on board in using the technology with their students. Most of the students know how to use the technology but our teachers don’t and some are scared to use it.

  42. Digital media and technology including e-learning and mobile learning are here to stay and will continue to develop and change the way we teach and learn. Many schools already offer BYOD programs for those that are more comfortable learning with/via technology which helps to bridge the gap between boring classes and disconnected students. This allows the student some flexibility and encourages them to listen and participate, which in turn expands their sphere of learning because it incorporates something more they can contribute. I believe that those in education now will have to find answers to questions and problems mentioned above because education will be completely different for the next generation.

    1. Education technology will continue to accelerate the methods of access of educational content. The future will not be about specific devices.The devices we have such as i pads are the ‘now’ of technology. In future we might have wearable technologies such as Google glasses, or even virtual devices. Technology will also allow for innovations such as massive open online content-MOOCs, aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web as opposed to static content in a book or a web page. If we think of schools as places where we go to access education, schools will be defined a virtual places with the ability to access, alter, collaborate, and offer courses any place, anytime, mostly in a remote way from the cloud or some other virtual form of a cloud. I had an AHA moment as to how far technology has taken us in the way we teach. I created online accounts for my Algebra 1 students on Pearson Algebra 1 textbook and assigned them a test to work on during their Fall break. Some students do not have Internet access or computers at home(that is the past), but now every student has a smartphone they can take the test from! I believe the possibilities are limitless as to how technology will change education. This week I was reading an article in TEACH-Tennessee Education Association(TEA) newsletter. The article reports that the Tennessee Virtual Academy, operated by K-12, inc is one of the bottom performing schools in the state. The article poses the question “despite spending all the money on this new kind of experiment, how can we justify the use of this technology at the expense of the students who will lose academically?” In reality, by asking this question, the article is engaging us in a process of evaluating the virtual school model. Through such a process we can discard technologies that are ineffective, and develop those that work. I believe technology has created innovations that have succeeded, and some that have failed, but through the evaluating each technology we have arrived to where we are today. The same process will lead an even brighter future for education technology.

  43. Well, I think the technology is here to stay and, unlike most of the previous mediums of the past, I think e-learning will have a lasting impact in the education world. I believe the power of the technology today and the user-friendly capabilities will be the reason for its impact. I think the greatest hurdle is training teachers to use/apply the tools to their lessons to engage today’s Digital Natives in ways that they are accustomed to living. Marc Prensky says it best when he talks about how today’s learners must unplug when they come to school and if you stop and think about it, they really do. My 3-year old grandson has been using the iPad since he was a little over 6 months old. He is now a proficient user of this technology and knows where to go to find his apps and how each of them work. He is also not afraid to tinker with a new app – contrary to Digital Immigrants (those of us born before the Digital Age appeared).

    I do think technology is here to stay and the newer generation of teachers will think nothing of using these tools in their instruction – as seamlessly as today’s teachers use the scantron machine. I can see us allowing students to bring their own devices and using them in the design of our lessons. I also think that adaptive response learning systems will make their mark on education. It is a very exciting time to be in Instructional Design/Educational Technology.

  44. To me, what folks are desperately clinging to as notions of what “education” is today – or isn’t – will be utterly pointless in 20 years or less. Although I detest the phrase, paradigms are indeed shifting. Today’s Kindergartener will be tomorrow’s educator. I seriously doubt they will recognize the same methods we are using – and have used – for the past 100 years as having any use or relevance whatsoever. And no, this is not about LEARNING IMPORTANT FACTS or whatever – it is about HOW people learn. It’s about time to rethink this, folks. Technology plays a major role, but it is far beyond the educator’s sphere of direct influence. At this point, technology, and its impact on society, simply IS.

  45. Some great points raised. Many reflect the constant tug between innovation and consolidation of knowledge. Nlowell in particular raises issues about making the best of what we’ve got now – making things work, rather than just hoping new technologies will “rise all boats” with the tide.

    So we’ve got a few things going on as we contemplate the future:

    – a steady stream of ever-more-sophisticated tools and resources
    – a steady lag in applying sound concepts to practice, in spite of occasional successes
    – a theory base that often isn’t much help to either understanding the new technologies, or solving the pragmatic problems of everyday practice

    That’s an exciting future because it poses many opportunities for improvement!

  46. Interesting stuff – here is more:
    Research: Educators must engage “wired” teens
    Teens capable of producing YouTube videos, publishing anime or podcasting are likely to be underwhelmed by school, researchers say. “Kids associate one word with school: ‘boring,'” Deborah Stipek, a Stanford professor and dean of education, said, adding, “The question becomes what is the role of school in this larger environment.” More at:

  47. I think the future of technology will hold surprises for us into tech. Technology will be so ubiquitous that it will become invisible – just like the technology of a student desk or pencil in most 1st world countries today. Learners will carry their access to the web in their pockets – literally. The future of technology is not in 1:1 laptop programs but in cell phones and to a lesser extent mp3 players. Labs of computers will still be in use in most schools and the lucky ones will have laptop carts that bring the lab to classrooms. Personal laptops will be more and more a purchase of the wealthy. Laptop ownership will continue to be one of the lines that divides ‘the haves’ from ‘the have-nots’.

  48. I think it will continue to be under the radar. Never has there been such a need and yet educational technology (in the broader sense – not just in the narrow sense of computers and networks) continues to be excluded.

    Educational research into online education continues to focus on media comparison studies. Research as a whole continues to be driven by journal publication in support of tenure and woefully out of date and more and more disconnected with reality. New opportunities in virtual environments like SecondLife are being squandered by educators moving in to create classrooms where they can have student avatars sit in virtual seats and attend broadcast lectures — 2D education in a 3D world. Textbooks are obsolete before they’re out of copy editing – to say nothing of printed, adopted, and sold.

    Questions that need to be asked are being ignored:

    1. Shouldn’t we be focused on *distribution* of what we already know? If we can teach 10% more people, the impact is massively more important than learning to teach those people we already reach 10% better. (Thank you, Dave Wiley)

    2. How does a program of national testing help raise the academic qualifications of the nation when we don’t have a set of standards that everybody is behind? And how can we be supporting the use of invalid (but reliable) instrumentation in the service of punishing the most challenged schools? Anybody who actually believes the political rhetoric surrounding this is missing the point.

    3. Why isn’t there a National Teacher’s License? And why can’t an individual take the test for licensure without the endorsement of an institution with vested interest in maintaining their own market position in selling that endorsement? The test is valid or it’s not. The incremental value of the university endorsement — which represents a financial conflict of interest — needs to be examined.

    4. Is the classroom really the answer? Schools are ‘education factories’ and have been organized like production lines. Is this how people really learn? If we’re going to examine classroom 2.0, why aren’t we looking at the fundamental assumptions that classrooms have outgrown their usefulness.

    5. What *do* students need to know? And are the teachers, parents, and administrators *really* the ones to determine that? Who is? Is there a foundational core of skills, knowledge, and attitude? Why is it different in California than Connecticut? Does local control of schools mean we need to accept locally stupid students? Is the “best education we can afford” something we want controlled by property taxes? Or the Feds?

    6. What is the purpose of Education? And how can we justify what we’re doing to kids in schools under *any* of the generally accepted notions of that purpose?

    7. With seven million teachers in the US, how do we get skills, knowledge, and attitudes up to par? Who’s going to foot the bill? Where is the time going to come from?

    Looking at a more specific application:

    Despite a wide adoption of computers and other networked devices in the larger populations, the response of Education is to limit, control, or shut-down. Laptops are being excluded from lectures in colleges across the country. Nobody’s asking the pointed questions about the utility of lectures. Only that laptops are “disruptive.” And I’m sure they are.

    We’ve spent millions in this country to linkup and digitize classrooms. Now we’re spending more — and writing legislation — to prevent the realization of that investment.

    There’s an axiom. “Teachers teach the way they were taught.” How many teachers today learned to learn on a computer? Too many are now saying, “I don’t have time to learn all this stuff! Just tell me what I need to know to use this in my classes!”

    There’s a profound disconnect between Education, and Learning. Those who are charged with educating the next generation seem more interested in proving that they’re educating than in assuring that the next generation is actually learning anything useful. Perhaps it has been this way since Socrates’ time.

    When teachers — even teachers who are charged with knowing, using, and supporting educational technology — have difficulty in dealing with basic tools like email, I think we’re a long, long way away from any kind of breakthrough.

    Personally, I’m of the mind that some “Social Singularity” (which is already in progress) will overtake education within a generation. When credential inflation collapses the market for those credentials, the system that provides them will become valueless. The economic collapse that’s pretty much inevitable will hasten that end.

    So, basically and perversely, I’m betting on the apocalypse for educational technology to gain a foothold.

    Until then, too many people have too much riding on maintaining the status quo to permit educational technology, instructional design, and systems approaches to education to really get more than lip service and anecdotal adoption. That’s the bad news.

    The good news is that I think the end is nigh.

    Discuss. 🙂

    1. You bring up some very valid questions, however, I sincerely hope it doesn’t take Armageddon to get the answers. 🙂 On a more serious note, in order to see change, we have to take a stand and not many are willing to stick their necks on the chopping block. I could answer your questions based on what I would like to see but wanting something doesn’t make it happen; so I will just say that I hope for the best, do what I can in my little corner, pray a lot, and hope others do the same because if enough are trying to change their corner, we can meet in the middle eventually. Miracles happen!

  49. I think there will also be an increase in the use of portable devices in the classroom. We’re already seeing technologies like iPods, cell phones, digital cameras and such being implemented in some classes. I suspect that as more and more of the populations acquires these for individual use they’ll begin to be considered acceptable in schools and then educators will begin integrating them with education.

  50. I predict that we’ll see online learning grow. I think it will become much more prevalent and that many new technologies will emerge in this area.

  51. I realize that many 1:1 laptop initiatives have been abandoned, but I think that we will see a time within the next 20 years when there is a ratio of nearly 1 computer per learner. We’re seeing signs of this in universities. It’s difficult to determine whether this will occur as the result of funding initiatives or just from learners bringing their own laptop with them to school. Many of my students own and use their own laptops outside of school but they are not allowed to bring them to school. I think we’ll see this change soon.

  52. I think technology will be come increasingly used in classrooms and it will eventually be truly “integrated” so that it is seamlessly used.

  53. I believe the use of educational technology will continue to grow. I like to compare it to how people felt when the first automobiles came into existence. People were suspicious and very wary of them. Eventually autos became a very useful tool (and if abused, could also become a very dangerous one). I think that eventually people will not know how to get along without computers just like most can not do without an automobile.

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